1. Where does your story take place?
2. When does your story take place?
This may go without saying, but if your story is set in the 1980’s or 1990’s, having your detective catch the bad guy with DNA is not very believable. Technology and tests are always changing in forensics.
3. What’s your character’s job title?
As cool as it looks on CSI, I can’t think of a place where the same person collects the evidence at a crime scene, determines the cause of death, runs the test on the evidence, interrogates the suspect, goes on stakeouts/undercover ops, and make the arrest. There are different jobs for each of these, and overlap will vary from place to place. In a small town, a detective might collect the evidence, interrogate the suspect, and make the arrest, but he or she won’t be determining the cause of death (that’s the medical examiner or coroner) or running the tests on the evidence (if it’s a small town, the evidence will probably be sent to the nearest crime lab.) At the same time, your CSI may collect evidence and nothing else if they work in a large city. Other places, the same people collect the evidence and test it.
4. What agency does your character work for?
Research that specific agency and know what they specialize in. Most law enforcement agencies will work a variety of crimes, but many people are surprised to know that the FBI doesn’t typically get involved in murder cases or witness protection even though they’re often depicted doing just that. Find out how people within that agency are titled. Are they detectives, agents, inspectors, officers? Who carries a gun within that agency? You might be surprised. In some states, even the lab personnel are considered commissioned officers and carry a weapon.
5. Don’t be afraid to ask questions.
There are lots of experts out there who are willing to answer questions about their experiences (myself included.) Most law enforcement agencies have a public relations person or department that can answer some questions for your specific region. One of my favorite online sources is the Crime Scene Writer’s group. This is a pool of people from all sections of law enforcement who are willing to answer writer’s questions. Make sure you search the messages first because there’s a lot to be gleaned from past questions.