Since I get LOTS of questions regarding bleeding, I thought this would be a nice instructional video to post regarding treatment of excessive bleeding.
The post is mildly political at the beginning and does contain some profanity (bleeped out), but at the end it is a great discussion of controlling bleeding— particularly use of tourniquets.
Thanks ZDogg, MD for the great information and keep up the good fight.
I get asked often as a medical expert and host of this blog how fast someone can bleed out from a variety of injuries. When I say fast, I think many people are doubtful. I’ve said many times that all bleeding can lead to death if not controlled, whether venous or arterial.
Recently, Bo Johnson, a friend of mine who is an ER nurse and avid outdoors man had a very close call with nearly bleeding to death. This story does have a happy ending (thank heavens.)
Bo was riding his bike to his children’s school while carrying a razor scooter in one hand. The scooter became caught in his bike and when he fell, his neck landed on the edge of the scooter, severing his right internal jugular as well as a large muscle. What follows is video of the bleeding before surgery that Bo graciously gave me permission to post here. WARNING: The following video is a graphic representation of active bleeding.
Photo Courtesy of Bo Johnson
Keep in mind, this is a large vein, and not an artery. However, the bleeding is still quite brisk and if uncontrolled would be deadly. If it had been arterial, the blood would be a brighter red in color and would spurt from the wound, and would be more difficult to control.
Bo spent two hours in surgery to repair the injury. The jugular vein could not be repaired so was tied off. The jugular vein on the other side of the neck will hopefully compensate. He spent one night in the hospital and should be back to work helping to heal others in about a month.
All who know Bo are so thankful that he is going to be okay after this freak accident. I personally publicly thank him for allowing me to share his story, video, and photo with you so you can see just how significant bleeding can be.
Speedy recovery, my friend.
Sometimes, it’s hard to know when writing a scene when to pull the big guns out. If you have a character that is bleeding a lot (by whatever mechanism) when should you think about giving them blood? Or, better yet, when will the lack of blood begin to hamper their ability to function.
Fairly consistent among resources, hemorrhagic shock (shock related specifically to blood loss) is a life-threatening condition that results when you lose more than 20% or 1/5th of your blood supply. Patients will feel lightheaded, dizzy. Their respiratory rate and heart rate will be elevated. Their blood pressure might be low. They’ll look pale, pasty. Their skin might feel cool, clammy, dough-like.
But exactly how much blood does that translate to? I actually found this nifty little calculator that will give you a person’s estimated blood volume based on their age, sex, and weight. For instance, a man weighing 100 kg has an estimated blood volume of 7,500 ml. So losing 20% of his blood volume would be 1,500 ml of blood or approximately 3 pints of blood. A pint of whole blood (what you would donate) is approx 500 ml. A woman of the same weight has only 6,500 ml of circulating blood. An infant weighing 10 kg has only 800 ml of blood. You can see how that 20% translates much differently depending on the characters age, sex and weight.