Author Question: Brain Bleeding 1/2

I’ll be handling Christy’s question in two parts. Part one today.

Christy Asks:

A bullet grazes my hero’s brain. He’s taken to the hospital where he has an intracranial hematoma.Would he be in a medically induced coma after this? If so, for how long? When do doctors decide to take someone out of a medically induced coma? What would a victim be like after the fact? Sedated? When would they know the extent of the injuries?

Jordyn Says:

It depends. Let’s start from the top.
A bullet grazing someone’s brain. Okay—well in order for it to even hit the brain it has to come through the skull. So, it’s not going to be a minor injury considering that. Not like a bullet grazing your arm.
An intracranial hematoma means you have bleeding on the brain but you haven’t really specified the area. For instance, epidural hematomas occur between the dura (which is a tough membranous covering) and the skull. These are almost always taken to surgery.
In a subdural hematoma the bleeding occurs between the dura and the arachnoid layer. These are not always evacuated by surgery. It depends on their size. Intracranial bleeding can mean a lot of things—that the bleeding is just within skull (which includes the two things I’ve mentioned) or in the brain tissue itself. Bleeding within the brain tissue itself is much harder to deal with.
Would he be in a medically induced coma? It depends. The decision to put someone in a medically induced coma is more based on whether or not the doctors think the brain will swell as a result of the injury and not necessarily because there was a bleed. For instance—epidural hematomas are generally taken to surgery and evacuated without the patient needing to be put into a coma.
If they think they see a significant amount of swelling of the brain tissue then a medically induced coma is more likely. A patient is generally placed into a coma through the period of peak swelling which is generally 48-72 hours post injury. The patient gets a special monitor (a bolt) that monitors their brain pressure (or ICP—intracranial pressure). 
After that peak period of swelling comes and goes a decision will be made to wean the patient off their sedation. The pressure may stay high. If the pressure stays high the patient may proceed to brain death (caused by herniation or hypoxia related to the pressure), or significant brain injury, or recover. It may not be known for several months what the outcome is though generally if a patient is going to suffer brain death they will do it in that 48-72 hr window. Past that, if they live but the pressures have been high—more a vegetative state or significant neurological impairment. If pressures have stayed lower—the patient may recover okay.
I have seen miracles, though, too so this is not cut and dried.
As far as knowing the extent of injures—they’ll know that pretty quickly based on CT imaging. However, what won’t be known is the affect on the patient. People can have the same exact brain injury—some die—some fully recover so there is a lot of writing leeway here. It may not be known for years how the patient will recover or what their lives post-injury will look like. 
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Christy Barritt is an author, freelance writer and speaker who lives in Virginia. She’s married to her

Prince Charming, a man who thinks she’s hilarious–but only when she’s not trying to be. Christy’s a self-proclaimed klutz, an avid music lover who’s known for spontaneously bursting into song, and a road trip aficionado. She’s only won one contest in her life–and her prize was kissing a pig (okay, okay… actually she did win the Daphne du Maurier Award for Excellence in Suspense and Mystery for her book Suspicious Minds also).

Her current claim to fame is showing off her mother, who looks just like former First Lady Barbara Bush. When she’s not working or spending time with her family, she enjoys singing, playing the guitar, and exploring small, unsuspecting towns where people have no idea how accident prone she is. For more information, visit her website at: www.christybarritt.com.

Child Abuse Injuries: Shaken Baby Syndrome 2/3


April is Child Abuse Prevention month and this week I’m posting about the most devastating child abuse injury—Shaken Baby Syndrome or SBS.
Last post I discussed the leading cause of death is a brain injury called Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI) which leads to massive swelling in the brain, which if not controlled will push the brainstem into the spinal cord, and this leads to brain death.
There are other classic injuries associated with SBS. In Part I I described how DAI occurs—by the violent shaking and the brain hitting the inner surface of the skull repeatedly.
What also occurs is the small bridging veins that cover the brain and are attached to the underside of the skull are torn as well. This leads to bleeding on the brain and is referred to as a Subdural Hematoma (SH) or subdural bleed. This can be picked up radiologically and although forensically a specific time and date cannot be given as to when the bleeding occurred—a radiologist can tell if there are old and new bleeds which correlates to different episodes of shaking.
People who have committed this type of child abuse injury have confessed to shaking multiple times. It’s as if they see shaking work one time to quiet an infant’s crying—it’s an easy solution the next time.
As stated in the earlier post—the bleeding is generally not what kills the child—it is the insidious brain swelling and subsequent herniation.
How do these children present to medical personnel?
Mild Presentation:

Large head.
Can’t lift their head.
Eyes can’t focus or track.
Decreased Responsiveness.
Irritability.
Lethargy/Limpness.
Vomiting.
Decreased muscle tone.
Poor appetite.
Not smiling.
Not vocalizing.

Severe Presentation:
Seizures.
Decreased respiratory rate.
Not breathing.
Rigid posture.
Bulging soft spot.
Coma.
Death.
The medical team is generally clued in to the possibility of child abuse when a caregiver gives an implausible account of why the child is so sick. Typical responses are—“Well, my one-month-old baby just rolled off the couch.”
Hmmm… if only he could roll.
Next post we’ll talk about another classic injury associated with SBS.

And please– never, ever shake an infant. 

For help in dealing with a crying baby– click here